Tahun Lompat bermakna ada satu hari been inserted, or intercalated, at the end of February. Pada tahun ini juga, 2008, kita mempunyai 366 (biasanya 365)
Kenapa kalendar memerlukan tahun lompat?
Tahun lompat diperlukan untuk our calendar in alignment with the earth’s revolutions around the sun. The vernal equinox is the time when the sun is directly above the Earth’s equator, moving from the southern to the northern hemisphere. The mean time between two successive vernal equinoxes is called a tropical year–also known as a solar year–and is about 365.2422 days long.
Using a calendar with 365 days every year would result in a loss of 0.2422 days, or almost six hours per year. After 100 years, this calendar would be more than 24 days ahead of the season (tropical year), which is not desirable or accurate. It is desirable to align the calendar with the seasons and to make any difference as insignificant as possible. By adding a leap year approximately every fourth year, the difference between the calendar and the seasons can be reduced significantly, and the calendar will align with the seasons much more accurately.
(The term “day” is used to mean “solar day”–which is the mean time between two transits of the sun across the meridian of the observer.)
According to the above criteria, that means that years 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300 and 2500 are NOT leap years, while year 2000 and 2400 are leap years.
It is interesting to note that 2000 was somewhat special as it was the first instance when the third criterion was used in most parts of the world. In the Julian calendar–introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and patterned after the Roman calendar–there was only one rule: any year divisible by four would be a leap year. This calendar was used before the Gregorian calendar was adopted.
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